Joint pain is a resultant symptom of  so many underlying conditions. It is common in the old age because of the wear and tear of the joints.
The following are a few causes of joint pains:

  1. obesity – being obese puts a weight on the joint thus making the joints of the knee strenuous causing pain.
  2. Vitamin D deficiency – Some diseases like Rickets and  osteomalacia due to Vit D deficiency makes the bones brittle causing joint pain
  3. Trauma – Injury/sprain to the ligament, or the tendon
  4. Gouty arthriris, osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis
  5. Bursitis – Inflammation of the cushion pads around the joints
  6. Lyme disease – resultant of a tick bite.
  7. Lupus – an autoimmune disorder that can wreck the joints
  8. Fever – joint pains are common in typhoid, dengue and chikungunya

Pain is always a result of increased vata in the body.

Vikruta Vata Janito Asadharana Vyadhihi Vata Vyadhihi (Ref – Madhava Nidanam 22)

Vata vyadhi is a result of imbalance vata dosha. The below mentioned herbs are clinically proven effective in controlling the aggravated vata dosha.
These six herbs when properly used helps in relieving joint pains. However the underlying disease condition should be treated by consulting the physician.

  1. Shallaki – Called as Boswellia serrata is extensively used in treating joint pains and inflammation. Boswellic acid, an important active constituent in Shallaki, helps in suppressing joint inflammation and pain by targeting key enzymes that facilitate the release of pro-inflammatory chemicals in the joints.
  2. Turmeric – Turmeric is a wonder herb that reduces inflammation, dissolves any blood clots underneath the skin as a result of trauma. Curcumin is the active ingredient present in curcuma longa that does wonders.
  3. Aswagandha – Withania Somnifera is an ayurvedic herb that is proven to reduce pain , inflammation and uric acid deposition in the joints in cases of gout. It reduces the autoimmune reaction.
  4. Nirgundi – there are a few herbs that are multi-potent and as versatile as Vitex negundo is. It is a muscle relaxant and pain relieving herb that is mainly used in the ayurvedic treatment of sciatica. The principle ingredients: casticin, isoorientin, chrysophenol D are known to reduce swelling and pain.
  5. Guggulu – Commiphora mukul which contains guggulosterones which are the active principles reduces pain and inflammation of the joint. The active component is mainly known to reduce the swelling which in in turn reduces pain. It is also a natural lipid lowering agent.

References:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5295114/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3296342/
(Dar et al, Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, Dec. 2015).
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021915003004891
Additional readings:

6 Top Ayurvedic Herbs that Treat Sciatica Pain

How to Use Turmeric for Curing Various Ailments