If there is a definition for the precursor of diseases, blood pressure would typically fall into it. This disease is very notorious to give rise to a number of other diseases like kidney failure, heart disease, stroke, hemorrhage and many more. That’s not all! There are many other conditions like diabetes and high cholesterol, which increase the susceptibility of blood pressure.
Blood pressure is the pressure exerted on the walls of the blood vessels and it increases as the heart pushes blood from its chambers. There are two types of blood pressure, systolic and diastolic. The higher pressure with which the heart pushes out blood to the blood vessels is systolic blood pressure and the lower pressure with which the heart fills in blood within itself is diastolic blood pressure. There is no specific value of normal blood pressure as it varies with age. Infants have a diastolic pressure of 50 whereas the normal levels of an adult are 120/80, where 80 is diastolic and 120 is systolic. As the age advances, after 45 years, the blood pressure increases as the blood vessels lose the elasticity and hence offer more resistance to the flow of blood. Hence after 45 years, 145/85 is the normal range.
There are various factors which influence the body and its blood pressure. The production of rennin is one of them. Renin is a hormone which is produced by the body when the blood pressure increases. This affects the functioning of the kidney and lots of water and excess fluid passes out of the excretory organ which lowers the blood volume and hence reduces blood pressure. Thus, rennin acts as a diuretic and helps in body homeostasis.
Nitric oxide is another substance which controls the blood pressure by lowering it. It is present in the red pigment of the blood called hemoglobin and it increases as and when the person performs physical exercise.However, this doesn’t refer to heavy exertion.
Blood pressure and heart disease
As the blood exerts more pressure on the walls and erodes them, the vessels loose their elasticity and become very thick. Moreover the heart is loaded with more blood to pump and hence under stress it becomes enlarged. This is a dangerous condition where in the heart may stop its functions and become nearly latent.
Sometimes, the VLDL or very low density lipoprotein concentration in the blood may go up and this forms a layer of fatty deposit in the inner lining of blood vessels. This leads to atherosclerosis and offers more resistance to blood flow thereby deteriorating the blood pressure.
Blood pressure and stroke
When the pressure increases to an extent where the blood vessels in the brain are damaged and ooze out blood, the life is at threat and the condition is referred to as stroke.
Blood pressure and kidney disease
When the kidney gets an extra load of blod to be filtered, its glomerulus become thickened and their permeability is lowered. This diminishes the kidneys to filter the blood effectively and slowly causes kidney failure.