Here are some of the different types of substances used in the manufacture of ayurvedic medicines:

1.  Audbhida – Plant products like fruits, seeds, barks, roots, leaves.

2.  Jangama – Animal products like gall stones, milk , blood, urine and bones.

3.  Paarthiva – Minerals and metals – Mercury, iron, copper, zinc, silver, gold.

4.  Madya – which are alcoholic beverages.

5.  Purified opium and Cannabis indica are not found in ancient ayurvedic texts but are used in some ayurvedic preparations.

6.  Camphor

7.  Oil – both internal and external use

8.  Tar – to stop bleeding.

 

Additional Reading:

Introduction to Rasa Shastra

Rasa Shastra