Here are some of the different types of substances used in the manufacture of ayurvedic medicines:
1. Audbhida – Plant products like fruits, seeds, barks, roots, leaves.
2. Jangama – Animal products like gall stones, milk , blood, urine and bones.
3. Paarthiva – Minerals and metals – Mercury, iron, copper, zinc, silver, gold.
4. Madya – which are alcoholic beverages.
5. Purified opium and Cannabis indica are not found in ancient ayurvedic texts but are used in some ayurvedic preparations.
7. Oil – both internal and external use
8. Tar – to stop bleeding.