Mukta Vati – Proven Ayurvedic Remedy for Hypertension/High Blood Pressure

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What is High blood pressure (Hypertension)?

High value of blood pressure is known as hypertension. Normal value of blood pressure is 120/80 mm of Hg. According to experts, because of modern rat race and stress in life, values like 130/90 are considered to be normal. Hypertension is considered to be a silent killer. Today hypertension is encountered in young patients in age group of 25-35 years. In obese patients hypertension is usually associated with diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia (excess levels of fats in the blood). These are life style disorders and lack of physical exercise and improper dietary habits are major cause of these diseases.

Cause: Age factor is the leading cause of hypertension. With passage of time the elasticity of the blood vessels particularly arteries decrease and there is congestion of blood. Arteries undergo hardening (sclerosis) and the process is known as arteriosclerosis. High levels of blood pressure can lead to brain haemorrhage (bleeding) and vision loss.  Increased consumption of fatty foods is another factor responsible for the growing incidence of hypertension. Fat rich foods cause cholesterol and triglycerides (types of fats) to accumulate in the inner wall of arteries. Gradually there is rise in fats (lipids) in the blood and the condition is known as hyperlipidemia (excess levels of fat in blood).  Deposition of the fats (atheroma) in the inner wall of arteries leads to hardening of them, condition known as atherosclerosis.  Increased salt intake in the diet leads to hypertension. It causes sodium and water retention in the body and consequence is high blood pressure. Under these conditions, there is natural diuresis (increased urine flow) to get rid of excess water and sodium.  Thus reducing salt intake is major step in the treatment of hypertension. Indiscriminate use of pain-killers and steroids is associated with incidence of hypertension. Kidney and endocrinal disorders are also associated with hypertension.

Composition of Mukta Vati

  • Brahmi (Centella asiatica)
  • Shankhapushpi (Convolvulus pluricalis)
  • Arjuna Ghana (Terminalia arjuna)
  • Gazoban (Onosma bracteatum)
  • Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus)
  • Pushkarmool (Inula racemosa)
  • Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)
  • Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia)
  • Prawal Pishti (Corallium rubrum)
  • Mukta Pishti (Calcinated shell of Pinctada margaritifera/Pearl Powder)

Pharmacology of major ingredients

Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna)

Gana or Classification according to Ayurveda: Kshaya skanda, Salsaradi and Udarda prashmana.

Family: Combertaceae.

Botanical name: Terminalia arjuna Roxb. W. & A.

Synonyms: Arjuna (Hindi), Arjuna, Dhavala, Indradru, Kakubha, Nadisraja, Veervruksha (Sanskrit) and Arjuna (English).

Habitat: T. arjuna is found in India.

Morphology: T. arjuna is an evergreen tree having stem bark; externally white and red internally. Flowers are white or yellow.

Chemical composition: ß-sitosterol, ellagic acid, arjunic acid, glucosides (arjunetin and fridelin), and tannic acid.

Rasa (Taste): Katu (Pungent).

Guna (Physical property): Ruksha.

Virya (Potency): Shita (Cold).

Vipaka (Post digestion effect): Katu (Pungent).

Effect on Tridosha: Pacifies Pitta and Kapha.

Karma (Specific action): Hrddya (Cardiac tonic).

Therapeutics: T. arjuna is used in the treatment of angina pectoris, hyperlipidemia, spermatorrhoea, bloody diarrhoea and pruritis. Locally the drug finds application in haemorrhage and fractures.

Parts used: Bark.

Dose: Powder (3-6 G); Decoction (50-100 ml).

Formulations based on Arjuna: Arjunaristha and Arjunaghrita.

Pharmacological investigations

A study reported the cardio protective activity of bark extract of T. arjuna in 12 patients with refractory congestive cardiac failure. The extract demonstrated significant cardio protective activity as compared to placebo. A study reported beneficial effect of T. arjuna in patients with history of coronary artery disease. Arjunaphthanoloside isolated from T. arjuna has antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibitory activities. Terminoside A, isolated from the acetone fraction of the ethanolic extract of stem bark of T. arjuna has nitric oxide inhibitory activity.

Jyotishmati

Family: Celastraceae.

Botanical name: Celastrus paniculatus Willd.

Synonyms: Nimba (Hindi), Jyotishmati, Kanguni and Katabhi (Sanskrit) and Staff tree (English).

Habitat: C. paniculatus is found in India and Sri Lanka.

Morphology: C. paniculatus is a climbing shrub. Leaves are alternate and flowers are light-green in colour. Fruit is capsule having black seed.

Chemical composition: Oil, alkaloids (celastrine and paniculatine), glucoside, and tannins.

Rasa (Taste): Tikta (Bitter) and Katu (Pungent).

Guna (Physical property): Laghu (Light).

Virya (Potency): Shita (Cold).

Vipaka (Post digestion effect): Katu (Pungent).

Effect on Tridosha: Pacifies Vata and Kapha.

Karma (Specific action): Medya (Brain tonic or nootropic).

Therapeutics: C. paniculatus is used in loss of memory.

Parts used: Seeds and oil.

Dose: Decoction (50-100 ml).

Formulations based on Jyotishmati: Jyotishmati taila.

Ashwagandha

Gana or Classification according to Ayurveda: Balya, Brahneya and Madhuraskanda.

Family: Solanaceae.

Botanical name: Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal.

Synonyms: Asgandha (Hindi), Ashwagandha, Avarohaka, Balya, Gokarna, Turangahva, Vajikari, Varada, Varahakarni, Vrsa (Sanskrit), Winter cherry (English).

Habitat: W. somnifera is found in India.

Morphology: W. somnifera is a perennial herb covered with hairs. It has tap root; stem is herbaceous above and woody below. Leaves are in unequal pairs; flowers are greenish or yellowish; fruit s berry becoming red on ripening.

Chemical composition: Alkaloids (anagrine, anaferine, cuscohygrine, hygrine, isopelletriene, pseudopelletriene, 3- tropyltigloate, tropine and withasomnine), withanolides (withaferin-A), proteins and amino acids. The roots are reported to contain dulcitol and withaniol (a mixture of two withanolides). The roots contain iron, potassium, magnesium and nickel.

Rasa (Taste): Madhura (Sweet), Katu (Pungent) and Tikta (Bitter).

Guna (Physical property): Laghu (Light) and Snigdha.

Virya (Potency): Ushna (Hot).

Vipaka (Post digestion effect): Madhura (Sweet).

Effect on Tridosha: Pacifies Vata and Kapha.

Karma (Specific action): Rasayana (Tonic).

Therapeutics: W. somnifera is used in the treatment of depression, hypertension, general debility, oligozoospermia, stress, premature ejaculation and leucorrhoea. In asthma, ash of W. somnifera is given with honey and vegetable oil.

Parts used: Root and leaves.

Dose: Powder (1-3G).

Formulations based on Ashwagandha: Ashwagandhadi churana andAshwagandharistha.

Prawal Pishti (Corallium rubrum)

Introduction: Pravala is dried form of animal (Anthazoan polyp) living in shallow sea. In fact, it is a skeleton of Anthazoan polyp. According to experts, sea water contains fraction of calcium oxide or lime. Animals living in sea feed on this lime and the quantity of lime keeps on increasing in their body. When the amount of lime exceeds the limit, the animals collect at one place and die. The collection gives impression of branches of a tree. Female gives lakhs (hundreds of thousands) of eggs. The network keeps on increasing and the animals at the base die and gets converted into lime. Pravala is red in colour and in between it contains lime. Pravala is of various types but red variety is considered to be superior. Best variety of pravala resembles with mature and red coloured fruit of Coccinia indica (Bimbi), is round, without any opening and straight. Pravala which is dusky, having opening, light and white coloured should be discarded.

Habitat: Seas of Italy, Africa, Equator and Europe. Pravala is not found in Indian seas.

Synonyms: Moonga (Hindi), Abdhijantuvisheshottha, Ambhodhipallava, Angrakamani, Bhaumratan, Latamani, Prawalak, Raktanga, Raktankura, Vidrum (Sanskrit), Coral (English).

Rasa (Taste): Madhura (Sweet), Katu (Pungent) and Amla (Sour).

Guna (Physical property): Laghu (Light) and Ruksha.

Virya (Potency): Shita (Cold).

Vipaka (Post digestion effect): Madhura (Sweet).

Effect on Tridosha: Pacifies Vata, Pitta and Kapha.

Karma (Action): Antacid, appetizer, digestive, cardiac tonic, mucolytic, nootropic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, diaphoretic, antidote to various poisons and tonic.

Therapeutics: Coral is given in dyspepsia, hyperacidity, bleeding diathesis, night-sweats, diabetes insipidus, asthma and renal calculi.

Dose: 30-125 mg.

Formulations based on Pravala: Apurvamalinivasanta, Chintamnai rasa, Churamani rasa, Kandarpa rasa, Kasturibharava rasa, Mahamringaka rasa, Makardhwaz vati, Mukta

panchamrita rasa, Pravala pisthi, Pravalapanchamrita rasa, Pupakvavishmajvarantaka lauha, Ratangarbhapotali rasa, Sarvangasundara rasa, Tralioyakchintamani rasa,

Unmadabhanjana rasa, Vadvanala rasa, Vasantatilaka rasa, Vishmajvarantaka lauha.

Mukta Pishti (Calcinated shell of Pinctada margaritifera/Pearl Powder)

Introduction: Pearl is formed inside the oyster. Inside oyster animal belonging to phylum molluska resides. When the animal is irritated, secretion is formed which gets converted into pearl. Mukta is circular, predominantly white and shining like silver.

Habitat: Australia, China, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Philipines, and Sri Lanka,

Synonyms: Moti (Hindi), Ambhasara, Mauktikam, Muktaphala, Shashiratana, Shuktija (Sanskrit), Civet (English), Chemical name: Calcium carbonate, Chemical formula: CaCO3.

Rasa (Taste): Madhura (Sweet).

Guna (Physical property): Laghu (Light) and Ruksha.

Virya (Potency): Shita (Cold).

Vipaka (Post digestion effect): Madhura (Sweet).

Effect on Tridosha: Pacifies Vata, Pitta and Kapha.

Karma (Action): Appetizer, cardiac tonic, mucolytic, antipyretic, nootropic, tonic and aphrodisiac, antidote to various poisons.

Therapeutics: Pearl is given in eye diseases, loss of appetite, liver-ailments, dysentery, internal haemorrhoids, spastic colon, bronchitis, tuberculosis, leucorrhoea, seminal debility, dysuria, menorrhagia, cardiac oedema, fevers, burning-syndrome, anaemia and lead poisoning.

Dose: 30-125 mg.

Formulations based on Mukta: Chintamani rasa, Churamani rasa, Grahanikpata rasa, Kancharabhra rasa, Kandrapa rasa, Kasturibharava rasa, Kshayakesari rasa, Kumudashvea rasa, Makardhwaz vati, Mehakesari rasa, Mukatapanchamrita rasa, Mukta bhasma, Mukya pisthi, Pupakvavishmajvarantaka lauha, Tralioyakchintamani rasa, Varishoshana rasa, Vasantamaliti rasa, Vasantatilaka rasa, and Vishmajvarantaka lauha.

Therapeutic indications: Hypertension

Contraindications Consult your physician if undergoing antihypertensive therapy with allopathic drugs like amlodipine, atenolol or ramipril or candesartan.  Pregnancy and lactation contraindicated.

Undesirable effects: Not reported.

Dose: 1-2 tablets twice-day by oral route or as suggested by the physician

 

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