Ayurvedic treatment is prescribed only after a thorough examination of the patient is done.  This is called Roga Pariksha, which helps the Vaidya (ayurvedic doctor) to arrive at a diagnosis.  Roga Pariksha is comprised of at least 10 main methods of examination:

#1  Pratyaksam – Physical signs

#2  Yukti – Experimentation

#3  Prasana – Interrogation

#4  Upamana – Comparison and contrast

#5  Anumana – Inference

#6  Aptopadesa – Reliable authority

#7  Ganita, Yantra – Maths and Instruments

#8  Taila Bindu Pariksa – Special exam of blood and urine

#9  Asta Sthana Pariksa – Examination of pulse, urine, stools, tongue, ear, skin, eye, face

#10 Examination of the person as a whole

Additional Reading:

Diagnostic Methods in Ayurveda – V.J. Thakar

A study on the method of Taila Bindu Pariksha (oil drop test)

A study on Tailabindu pariksha-An ancient Ayurvedic method of urine examination as a diagnostic and prognostic tool