What Are the Causes of Male and Female Infertility?

Infertility is the inability of an individual to conceive even after having 1 year of unprotected sex.

In India, it is roughly estimated that nearly 30 million couples in the country suffer from infertility. The incidence of male infertility is increasing due to changing lifestyle. (Source: Infertility in India)

Causes of Infertility

The causes of infertility may be congenital or acquired during later stages of life.

Female Infertility Causes

  • Hormonal imbalance leading to irregular periods, absence of periods or ovulation, PCOS, abnormal thyroid levels, etc.
  • Fallopian tube blockage.
  • Presence of cyst or fibroid.
  • Endometriosis.
  • Primary ovarian insufficiency.

Male Infertility Causes

  • Abnormality in sperm count, production or morphology.
  • Repeated exposure to harmful chemicals or toxins.
  • Constant exposure to hot temperature in the sauna or hot tub bath can affect sperm production.
  • Chronic smoking or alcohol consumption.

Common Causes of Infertility in Both Sexes

  • Being underweight or overweight.
  • Sedentary and unhealthy lifestyle.
  • Exposure to chemo or radiation therapy.
  • Drug abuse.
  • Ageing.

Symptoms of infertility 

In women- Abnormal hair growth, irregular or absence of periods,

In men- Change in hair growth pattern, Lack of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, swollen or underdeveloped testes, difficulty in ejaculation.

Management of Infertility

The treatment varies according to the cause of infertility. It includes Vamana, virechana, basti and administration of various internal medications.

Tips to Improve Fertility

  • The chance of fertility is maximum during ovulation. Couples having regular intercourse several times around the time of ovulation gives maximum pregnancy rate.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Try to maintain ideal body weight.
  • Manage your stress and anxiety.
  • Eat a healthy and balanced diet.
  • Avoid smoking, alcohol, caffeinated and other sugary drinks.
  • Avoid unnecessary self-medications.

Additional reading:

Spotlight on PCOS

Female Fertility: An Ayurvedic Perspective

Infertility – An Overview

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